Most diseases covered are economically significant or have the potential to become so. Foliar (leaf) and stalk/ear rot diseases and stem-borers cause great losses in maize production in the humid transitional and high tropics of Kenya. This can lead to reduced growth. The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) screening facility at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Naivasha in Kenya. Weeds can also cause further problems by harbouring pests and diseases, interfering with harvest operations, and increasing costs of cleaning and drying the crop produce. Infestation is particularly serious in dry season. The misdirection of efforts due to poor research done with obsolete technology reduces the potential productivity-boost that could take place in Kenya. Seed treatment with Metalaxyl at 4 g/kg and foliar spray of Mancozeb 2.5 g/l or Metalaxyl MZ at 2g/l is recommended. New FAO representative to Kenya takes office. Weeds are undesirable plants growing within a crop and they compete for resources such as nutrients, water and light. Napier grass has its own defense mechanism against crop borers by producing a gum-like-substance inside its stem, this prevents larva from feeding and causing damage to the plant. Symptoms: Circular to … Maize aphid: Attacks are on leaves as a black fungal growth (called sooty mold) often occurs on the honeydew secreted by aphids. Desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) when planted in between maize rows keep the stem borer moths away. Control Pests of Maize Knowledge of common maize crop pests can help smallholder farmers in early identification and control. Maize is subject to attack by a number of pests and diseases, mainly in insect pests (stalk borers and armyworms) and soil pests (wireworms and rootworms). Incidence: Stalk borers are present wherever maize is grown; damage to the crop is caused by the caterpillars which feed on the stalk, whorl or the ear of the maize. ... PESTS AND DISEASES. Yield losses in areas vary between 10-70%. This plant produces chemicals that repel stem borer moths. Cabbage looper. Stalk borers, rootworms, and armyworms are all common corn pests. Both the adults and the larvae (grubs) of the beetle feed in the grains. Without weed control, crop yields can be significantly reduced. ; Seedcorn beetle: Adult attack germinating seeds and seedlings, causing stunted growth. 1.3 Pest management in arid and semi arid production systems Pests are critical constraints to productivity of crops and livestock. (2) Grasshoppers: They eat up the leaves and other soft vegetative parts of the plant. Sudan grass also increases the efficiency of natural enemies, in particular parasitic wasps, when planted as border crops. The maize aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis is one of the most serious pests of maize crop in Bangladesh. New guide to help tackle papaya mealybug. Foliar (leaf) and stalk/ear rot diseases and stem-borers cause great losses in maize production in the humid transitional and high tropics of Kenya. You can also apply FASTAC, Spray with Dimethoate , Malathion, Karate. They have found to be efficient biological control agents against two major maize pests: theCotesia typhae to control the maize stemborer, Sesamia nonagrioides, which has invaded Yield losses in areas vary between 10-70%. Stored-Product On-Farm Evaluation of Hermetic Technology Against Maize Storage Pests in Kenya Paddy Likhayo,1,2,3 Anani Y. Bruce,4 Kimondo Mutambuki,1 Tadele Tefera,5 and Jones Mueke2 1Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (KALRO), PO Box 14733 - 00800, Nairobi, Kenya ([email protected]; [email protected]), 2Kenyatta University (KU), Department of … Broomrape. (Prostephanus truncatus) It attack stored maize grains. To understand the different ways of controlling pests and diseases naturally. Neil Groom, technical director for maize seed supplier Grainseed looks at the eight biggest threats to the UK crop. Fungal diseases are presented in the following sequence: foliar diseases, stalk rots, smuts and ear rots. Adults come from infested cobs in the field or from an infested maize store and lay eggs in the grains. Scientists at the Nairobi-based International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (Icipe) have discovered ‘smart’ maize varieties that defend themselves from the destructive stemborer by summoning the natural enemies of the pest. Highland maize varieties are grown on some 40-50% of the total maize area, representing 600,000 - 800,000 Ha. Spray Actellic Super 50EC in the grain stores, Fumigants ( Restricted to NCPB and other large grain handlers)- Tablets like Celphose, Quickphos, Gastoxin tablets, Detia gas Ex-Tablets, Ex-B Fumigation Bags, Dages plates, It is a small reddish brown beetle that infest flour and previously damaged and broken grains. Understand the kind of pest that cause damage to the crops Neil Groom, technical director for maize seed supplier Grainseed looks at the eight biggest threats to the UK crop. The larger grain borer also attacks wooden structures of the stores. A fall armyworm on a maize crop in Vihiga, Kenya. and other species), ASDSP II Bilateral Review Mission Field Visits to Marsabit and Embu Counties, Service Providers challenged to develop Commercial Entrepreneurs in Siaya County, Sparrow mango wine manufactured in Siaya County, Smart Weather Community platform (m-SWECO), Africa Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF), AF-MIP (Agriculture and Food Market information portal), Agricultural Information Resource Centre (AIRC), Agricultural Marketing Information Systems, National Horticulture Market information System (NaHMIS), Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (KALRO), Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Authority (AFFA), Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, SIANI- Swedish International Agricultural Network Initiative, Agricultural Sector Development Support Programme (ASDSP), Government of Kenya (GOK) Information site, Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), Agricultural Commodities Market Information. Their feeding inside the stems causes the plant to wither and sometimes die. Biopesticides in Kenya: Bio-pesticide: Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bio-fumigation: Copper fungicides in Kenya: ... Pests and Diseases; Pests and Diseases. The efforts have saved 17 percent of seed initially lost to the disease that led to maize deficit in Kenya, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. Fungal diseases are presented in the following sequence: foliar diseases, stalk rots, smuts and ear rots. Destroy termite nests, remove and kill the queen Apply termite killers like Termindol, Imaxi Seed dressing with Marshall 35 SD. Maize seeds production rises in eastern Africa as diseases contained Effective management of maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a pervasive viral disease affecting the cereal, has reduced seed production losses from 33 percent to 16 percent in the last four years, boosting supply of the product in the Eastern African region, experts noted. Constraints for maize production in Kenya include drought, low soil fertility, pests and diseases. Most diseases covered are economically significant or have the potential to become so. Wireworms: Wireworm feeds at the base of the young plants.It causes stunted growth and death of young plants. Different productive sectors in the ASALs that Bacterial wilt. Syngenta’s specialty crops business comprises a large and diverse group of high-value crops grown around the world. 1.1.4 Controlling pests and diseases. Aphids. The varieties have genetic markers which allow them to ‘call for help’ when attacked, attracting wasps- biological enemies of stemborers. Constraints for maize production include drought, low soil fertility, pests and diseases. Integrated pest and disease management is recommended. Although it is one of the KARI´s most important bets into the future, it has been a major challenge to have users adopt the newer technology made available for them. This is the time to treat - before the larvae move on into the stem. MAIZE PESTS. Common Rust: Common Maize Diseases. Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (Kalro) has developed two maize varieties that are resistant to the viral Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease and fall army worm. This is a list of top 10 fumigators or pest control companies in Kenya today. Maize is also a very important feed for livestock. ... Bean production is declining in Kenya due to various abiotic and biotic factors. Deccan wingless grasshopper. (Photo: George Mahuku/CIMMYT) This announcement by Dr. L. M. Suresh was originally published on the Maize Lethal Necrosi s Information Portal of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Two species of these parasitoids have been discovered by us and our colleagues in Kenya. The grains are used in the manufacture of com oil and animal feeds hence it is a vital raw material for industrialization. Summary Losses in maize seed production in Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania occasioned by a viral disease have dropped by 17 percent following efforts by … Earworm larvae tunnel directly into … Maize Figure 5: maize seedling attacked by cutworm, (Microtermes spp., Macrotermes spp., Allodontermes spp., and Odontotermes spp), Maize Figure 10: maize destroyed by weevils, Maize Figure 12: adult and larvae of red flour beetle, Maize Figure 13: An adult red flour beetle, © MMVI - MMXX NAFIS Design by Teknobyte, Cutworms (Agrotis spp. Anthracnose. It may be consumed fresh, ground, boiled or mixed with other foods. These insect pests of maize cause damage to the plant and these cause stress to the plant. maize, common beans, cassava, ... mainly due to pests and disease. It is processed in industries to produce oil and starch. the four causal agents for maize diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, and mollicutes. October 12, 2020. Often referred to as “white ants”, they occasionally cause partial or total defoliation of maize seedlings, but are mainly damaging to older maize plants. Severely damaged plants may lodge and be completely destroyed by termites. Karanja said farmers often debate whether to grow other crops when maize is hit by a new plant disease, pest pandemic or other limiting factor, such … Control a Spray with insecticides like vetox 85, and practice crop rotation. And maize lethal necrosis (MLN) virus poses a new threat to maize … Foliar (leaf) and stalk/ear rot diseases and stem-borers cause great losses in maize production in the humid transitional and high tropics of Kenya. These pests become a serious problem in short time if no control measures are applied. They are also used as organic manure. Apply Thiodan 3.5 G or Ambush 0.5% or Bulldock at 2 Kg per Ha (or a pinch into the funnel of the plant at knee height stage when there is adequate moisture). www.kws-uk.com. The grains are ground to produce maize flour and it is also consumed as a food grain. Without weed control, crop yields can be significantly reduced. • Large flocks of the birds can cause tremendous amount of damage. There is a man called Dr ehiaguna a herbal practitioner who helped cure me from HSV (2), i had suffered from this diseases for the past 5 years and i have spent so much money trying to survive from it. Stem borers alone cause around 13-15% loss of the crop. Home pests or office pests are irritating. Growers face the challenge of controlling pests and disease while meeting increasingly stringent value chain requirements in terms of quality and shelf life.Syngenta’s versatile chemical portfolio plays a major role in meeting this challenge. Maize Field Guide Maize Crop Development, Pests and Diseases. The eradication of collateral and wild hosts near maize field and rouging infected maize plants has been recommended. Smartphone app that detects pests and diseases in bananas. Young plants have pinholes in straight lines across the newest leaves. Dusts – Actellic Super, Sumicombi, Skana Super grain dust, Spintor Dust, Super Malper dust at a rate of 50 g per 90Kg bag. Control a Spray with insecticides like vetox 85, and practice crop rotation. Non insect pests Birds: • Important non-insect pests of maize. Both grasses attract stem borer predators such as ants, earwigs, and spiders. Maize crop production in Kenya has faced a lot of challenges over the years especially in recent times. Clean and dust with Actellic Super or Sumicombi the store well before use, Dust the shelled maize with either of the following chemicals Actellic Super, Sumicombi, Skana Super grain dust, Spintor Dust, Super Malper dust at a rate of 50 g per 90Kg bag. Nowadays, it becomes a major barrier for production of maize due to create hamper of pollination. Some examples of common maize pests and diseases and their control measures are shown in Tables 4 and 5, respectively. To understand the common pests and diseases in Kenya. The longer a field has been cultivated, the greater will be the yield losses caused by termites. A diseased Maize Plant Image courtesy of fwi.co.uk Pests. Attacked maize grains lose all their contents and are not fit to eat. Weeds are undesirable plants growing within a crop and they compete for resources such as nutrients, water and light. The hatched larva bores thin tunnels beneath the seed coat leaving circular holes on the surface of the grain. The stalks and cobs are used to provide domestic fuel, particularly in rural areas. Most of the maize crop is however produced on small scale farms. Bagrada bug. Constraints for maize production in Kenya include drought, low soil fertility, pests and diseases. Diseases and pest attacks have brought down yields and in some areas destroyed the crop completely, leading farmers into encountering serious loses. Blister beetle. ... Smart maize variety that defends itself against pests. (2) Grasshoppers: They eat up the leaves and other soft vegetative parts of the plant. Individuals can further contract diseases and bacterial infections from some of this pests even without physical contact. Maize is a staple food in Kenya. Black rot. Control Measures for Downy Mildew Diseases. To explain the process of monitoring pest, and diseases; Learning Outcomes. Here are some of common pests in maize fields: Stem/stalk borers. THE FUTURE . • The symptoms that immediately catch the eye are missing or damaged kernels on the cobs. SEEDING . Pest management plan should inform the inhabitats and stakeholders the likely interventions needed to address pests and their management in the ASALs. Causal organism: Puccinia sorghi. ... Angwenyi stated that a surge of new pests … The attack starts in the field where the female lays eggs in a slight hollow on the maize seed. SINCE 1856 For maize, threatening organisms are stem borers, nematodes, bacteria, viruses, fungi and weeds are some of the organisms that have a negative impact on the maize plant. The varieties have genetic markers which allow them to ‘call for help’ when attacked, attracting wasps- biological enemies of stemborers. This how to guide on pests, diseases and weed management will enable you to. Large scale maize production goes on … ... African cassava mosaic... African maize stalkborer. In Kenya, maize is produced in both small and large farms. Two species of these parasitoids have been discovered by us and our colleagues in Kenya. Maize Farming in Kenya – Pests and Diseases The most common maize diseases include:- Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) The disease occurs at all stages of crop. Pests, weeds and disease in maize crops can severely reduce yield and quality. True to its name, corn earworm feeds on the fleshy portion, or "ears", of maize crops. PEST AND DISEASES OF MAIZE Pests of Maize (1) Stem borers: The larvae bore holes into young stems and destroy the tissue, leading to low yield or death of the plant. PEST AND DISEASES OF MAIZE Pests of Maize (1) Stem borers: The larvae bore holes into young stems and destroy the tissue, leading to low yield or death of the plant. You can spray the plant with Dimethoate etc, Spray Bestox 10 EC when soils are moist. Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (Kalro) has developed two maize varieties that are resistant to the viral Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease and fall army worm. the four causal agents for maize diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, and mollicutes. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare sudanese) are good trap crops for stem borers. As plants mature the amount of damage increases rapidly. Leave the maize to dry completely in the field before stooking. Improved cassava pest control tool. Infestation and damage by pests have been ranked as the third most important constraint upon maize production in semi-arid eastern Kenya after moisture stress and poor soil fertility (Songa et al., 2002). Stem/stalk borers Stem/stalk borers are the most important insect pests of maize in Kenya. • Damage is often most prevalent along field edges and nearby wooded areas, but can extend throughout a ,large field. Termites begin to attack the roots and stems about three months after planting, and eventually cover with tunnels built of soil. Log in, Poultry Farming in Kenya – Chicken Farming in Kenya. Cabbage moth. The efforts have saved 17 percent of seed initially lost to the disease that led to maize deficit in Kenya, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. Stem/stalk borers are the most important insect pests of maize in Kenya. Diseases and pests are largely responsible for the low maize yields, however, the incidence and severity vary between seasons. MAIZE INSECT PESTS IMAGES MAIZE INSECT PESTS IMAGES . Banana weevil. SIMON MAINA/AFP via Getty Images Estimates in 2017 put potential losses in maize production in Africa to this pest … Weeds can also cause further problems by harbouring pests and diseases, interfering with harvest operations, and increasing costs of cleaning and drying the crop produce. Control Pests of Maize The stalks, leaves, and other remains from the maize cobs are used to feed domestic animals especially dairy cattle. Destruction of plant debris by deep ploughing and other methods. Pests, weeds and disease in maize crops can severely reduce yield and quality. Seedcorn maggot: The maggot bore into the seeds and seedlings and may result in seedling death. ... Angwenyi stated that a surge of new pests … There are also diseases such as leaf blights, rusts, and stem and root rots. 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2020 maize pests and diseases in kenya