Caspian Sea Library -The Library provides background papers, maps, charts and statistics on export options for Caspian oil. The Caspian Sea, the world’s largest enclosed, inland body of water, with an area of 386,400 square kilometers and a salinity of 1.2% concentration, is located between Europe and Asia. Natural gas supplied from the Caspian Sea region's countries accounted for the largest share of Turkey's imports in August as Russia, Azerbaijan, and Iran were top importers to the country. The positive size of annual radiation balance which equals difference between solar heat absorbed by the sea surface and the heat lost by the way of effective radiation testifies it. This period the humidity changes within 55-60% limits. It became landlocked about 5.5 million years ago due to tectonic uplift and a fall in sea level. It also increases towards the high sea. Five Caspian states – Russia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan – have adopted a convention on the legal status of the Caspian Sea. This paper illustrates the need for objective assessment … Many of the proposed export routes pass … It oscillates from 210 (Neft Dashlari) to 1250mm(Lenkoran zone) of precipitation per year on western coast of southern part of the sea. The radiation balance is positive since March till October for all water area of the sea and has maximal values in June and July (11-12 k.kal/sm2 per month). The Caspian was the first place to begin marine extraction of oil and is now one of the most carefully examined regions of the world for future potential in oil and natural gas, particularly in the sandy lowlands and the Mangyshlak and Cheleken peninsulas along the eastern coast. The probability of setting up wind fields of the northern rhumbs makes up on average 41% for one year; moreover their probability in the summer is more (48,7%) than in other seasons of the year. Azerbaijan, Georgia and Uzbekistan were the most determined in the search for closer cooperation with Western states. It is unique among the world's inland seas in that it is completely isolated from the rest of the global ocean and has a distinctive continental climate which gives the area extremes in temperature, from very hot summers to very cold winters. The largest range of monthly average airtemperatures in deep-water areas of the Middle Caspian is 20,5 - 22°C, of the South Caspian it is 18 - 20°C. All eastern winds make up on average 35,9% per a year. The Caspian also suffers from pollution, primarily close to industrial centers and oil refineries along the Apsheron Peninsula of Azerbaijan, and its major city, Baku. The monthly average airtemperature in January is -5 - 10°C in the north and near the east coast of the Middle Caspian, and is -1 - 5°C in Makhachkala area. Low speeds (2,2-3 m/sec) is observed on south-western coast, in Iranian waters and on southern coast of Caspian. Their values are 8-9m/sek in the area of Absheron peninsula. The amount of precipitation on the Caspian coast depends on interaction of originally different air masses with relief of the coast. Since the middle of March the temperature of air over eastern and western parts of the sea gets lower than over land; in the central deep-water areas of the sea and in the southwest this happens in April. Wind More often they are observed in the winter (41,3%), when the stable cyclones form above areas of Kazahkstan and Central Asia. The forested coastal plains rise up quickly into the Alborz Mountains. The average wind speeds are sizably lower in South Caspian: in central areas - 4-5 m/sec, on eastern coast - 3,5-4 m/sec, on the outside southeast -2,5-3 m/sec. Distribution of precipitation above water area is extremely uneven. In contrast, the southern and western shores are more steep, culminating in the nearly vertical walls along the southern coast where the ELBURZ and Talysh mountains of Iran come down to the sea. This is significantly depending on increase of continental temperatures. Language: Name: Name source: English: Caspian Sea: Wikipedia : PlaceType: Lake : Latitude: 41° 50' 51.5" N (41.84763°) Longitude: 50° 21' 24.5" E (50.3568°) The seafloor drops most dramatically in this region as well, with the Caspian's greatest depths over 3,300 ft (1,000 m). The radiation balance for all water area of the sea is positive and averages out 60 k.kal/sm2. Solar radiation Most of the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea is dry, with the extreme southeastern corner leading directly onto the Kara Kum Desert. Eventually it could be reversed for exports to China, which is intending to import over 1m b/d from the Caspian region (see Gas Market Trends No. A decades-long legal dispute over the status of the Caspian Sea is finally resolved, meaning Azerbaijan, Russia, Iran, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan will soon be open to luxury cruise trips. Its seafloor is, therefore, a standard oceanic basalt and not a continental granite body. Caspian Sea (kăs`pēən), Lat. The approach of the strongest colds in February is one of the most typical features of climate. Surplus of radiation heat predetermines intensive evaporation on what is spent 54 k.kal/sm2 of heat, and intensive connective heat exchange with an atmosphere. The country has a few cities located on or near the shores of the Caspian Sae, including Zhanbay, Atyrau, Fort Shevchenko, and Tcov. It is the largest enclosed inland body of water, and thus sometimes referred to as a sea.Caspian Sea’s surface area is 378,000 km2 or 143,200 sq mi, and it boasts a volume of 78,200 km3. If implemented, the region is likely to be defined by Russia’s geopolitical ambitions and Iran’s geo-economic anxieties in the near future. The Caspian Sea is considered by many to be the largest lake in the world, lake or sea, it is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth with an area of 371,000 km² (without the Garabogazköl Bay), compared, the Caspian Sea is larger than Germany or somewhat smaller than the US state of Montana. But no rivers flow out of the Caspian, and most of the water is lost through evaporation. The Caspian region is now one of … But extraction of chemical compounds was actually made more difficult than envisioned, and since the 1980s, the project has been reversed, and water is returning to Kara-Bogaz-Gol. Eastern coast distinguishes by dryness, and the maximum quantity of perceptions does not exceed 10-20mm there. Generally, the cloudiness on western coast of Middle Caspian is the greatest in all seasons that is connected with cyclonic activity in this area (Fig. It is estimated that the Caspian contains 48 billion barrels of oil and 8.7 trillion cubic meters of gas in proven or probable reserves. International Law and Concers of the Caspian Sea Region . 3.4). Caspian Sea Discourse-Commissioned by the Council on Foreign Relations in 1999 to formulate a set of recommendations for U.S. policy on the Caspian region. Five countries border the Caspian Sea. Substantial differences occur between the northern and the southern section of the sea. These parts are also very low-lying: The lowest point in Europe is the surface of the Caspian Sea, 89 ft (27 m) below sea level. To the north of Absheron peninsula the amount of precipitation makes 400-430 mm. Generally, the cloudiness on western coast of Middle Caspian is the greatest in all seasons that is … History records that it's called a sea because the Romans found it salty, especially in the southern reaches, and the name stuck. The Caspian is also home to large populations of seals, which are also hunted for their furs. In fact, by including the entire Volga River Basin, the Caspian has the largest catchment area in Europe (1.4 million square mi or 3.5 million square km). THE CASPIAN SEA IS ONE of the world's largest bodies of water, situated in a depression between RUSSIA, KAZAKHSTAN, TURKMENISTAN, IRAN, and AZERBAIJAN.It is unique among the world's inland seas in that it is completely isolated from the rest of the global ocean and has a distinctive continental climate which gives the area extremes in temperature, from very hot summers to very cold winters. The negative balance is only in December: form 2 k.kal/sm2 on the north of the sea to 1 k.kal/sm2 on the south (Fig. Cloud cover "The Caspian Sea and the lands around it are emerging again as a focus region in global affairs. Within Northern Caspian it comes down to 50k.kal/sm2, within Middle and South Caspian it reaches 65 k.kal/sm2. The most significant Iranian port on the Caspian Sea is the town of Bandar-e Anzali, the center of the Iranian caviar producing industry. The Caspian Sea region is one of the oldest oil-producing areas in the world and is an increasingly important source of global energy production. During warm and dry climatic periods, the landlocked sea almost dried up, depositing evaporitic sediments like halite that were covered by wind-blown deposits and were sealed off as an evaporite sinkwhen cool, wet climates refilled the basin. 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